Zeitgeist did a lot of mistakes when it comes to this matter – dates and facts doesn’t fit. However, their main idea is totally correct.
When it comes our civilization it was created in the northern Mesopotamia (the Armenian Highland) by the Hurrians (the Aryans) for around 10.000 years ago.
Gobekli Tepe (in armenian: Portasar – which means the navel) is seen as the first place of organized religion. From their the civilization spread to all directions, with religion, mythology, philosophy and science. Armenia is a continuation of Urartu, or Ararat.
The different gods, which is different aspects of the nature, got spread, but because of distances they sometimes got different names and some changes when it comes to the different details.
For me this is not a way to show that Christianity, which perfectly fits with this line of thinking, is fake, but the opposite.
When it comes to the knowledge of this ancient civilization and its roots it is amazing that they knew that much as they did, and that they described our relation to nature and in which way we should live not to destroy the balance wich exists in nature.
The Hurrians and the Urartians were the proto population in Southwest Asia, and especially in the Armenian Highland, were agriculture, domestication and development of metallurgi took place, spread the civilization, both through demic and cultural diffusion, which means the ideas and things in one culture “borrowed” by another culture.
The hurro-Urartian languages is both older than Indo-European and Semitic languages and cultures. It is closely connected with North Caucasian languages and Indo-European. There is also close similarities with Semitic languages. Armenian seems to be a direct development from the Hurro-Urartian languages.
The demic model assumes that the Neolithic range expansion was mainly due to the spread of populations, and the cultural model considers that it was essentially due to the spread of ideas.
Cultural diffusion explains ∼40% of the spread rate of the Neolithic transition in Europe, as implied by archaeological data. Thus, cultural diffusion cannot be neglected, but demic diffusion was the most important mechanism in this major historical process at the continental scale.
Demic diffusion is a demographic term referring to a migratory model, developed by Cavalli-Sforza, that consists of population diffusion into and across an area previously uninhabited by that group, possibly, but not necessarily, displacing, replacing, or intermixing with a pre-existing population (such as has been suggested for the spread of agriculture across Neolithic Europe and several other Landnahme events).
It seems likely that the spread of agriculture into Europe occurred by the expansion and spread of agriculturists, possibly originating in the Fertile crescent of the Near East region. This is referred to as the Neolithic demic diffusion model. Craniometric and archaeological studies have also arrived at the same conclusion.
Current evidence suggests that Neolithic material culture was introduced to Europe via western Anatolia, and that similarities in cultures of North Africa and the Pontic steppes are due to diffusion out of Europe.
All Neolithic sites in Europe contain ceramics, and contain the plants and animals domesticated in Southwest Asia: einkorn, emmer, barley, lentils, pigs, goats, sheep, and cattle.
Genetic data suggest that no independent domestication of animals took place in Neolithic Europe, and that all domesticated animals were originally domesticated in Southwest Asia.
Archaeologists seem to agree that the culture of the early Neolithic is relatively homogeneous, compared both to the late Mesolithic and the later Neolithic. The diffusion across Europe, from the Aegean to Britain, took about 2,500 years (6500 BC – 4000 BC).
Mange har nok stusset over hvordan det kan ha seg at den åndelige og spirituelle, men ikke troende, Sjur Cappelen Papazian, skriver som om jeg var blitt kristen.
Nå har det seg jo at jeg på grunn av fellestrekkene innad i religionene, samt den dypere forståelsen av dem, førte meg fra ateismen og inn i Bahai, som nettopp anskueliggjør denne likheten religionene imellom, samt det felles opphavet til religioner, myter, filosofi og vitenskap.
Det eneste aberet med å tro at ikke kristendommen har noe for seg er i tillegg til min egen åpenbaring at skriftene så mange ganger har helt rett og at det ligger så mye kunnskap og informasjon i dem at man ikke kan anse det som tilfeldig, men tatt i betraktning av at det ikke trenger å være noen motsetninger mellom kristendommen og andre religioner, så må man jo si at jeg i beste tilfelle er religiøs.
Når jeg skriver om kristendommen gjør jeg det gjerne ut fra den erkjennelse om at den inkluderer informasjon som beskriver vår sivilisasjons oppstart og utvikling i tillegg til at den blant annet består av myter og sagn fra vår sivilisasjons vugge. Den er i seg selv dermed å regne som en del av vår kulturhistorie.
Når det kommer til de ulike religionene er det i våre dager veldig populært å snakke om religionenes fellestrekk, noe man også gjør innen KRL på skolen. I tillegg har ikke minst Søren Kierkegaard jubileet i år satt stort fokus på religionens dypere og mer universelle anliggende.
Men religioner er et forsøk på å definere det vi ikke kan vite, og kristendom er et begrep på åndelighet/sjel, et begrep som intet mindre definerer hva åndelighet/sjel skal være. Institusjonalisert åndelighet plasserer ikke bare åndelighet i en egen sfære, det definerer også hva denne åndeligheten, på godt og vondt, skal være.
Og det er bra, men ikke bra nok, på langt nær.., dessverre. Det er ikke noen egentlig overskridelse av rasjonalitet og åndelighet, mellom det verdslige og det åndelige. Det åndelige forblir plassert innenfor en egen sfære; i religioner – eller mer moderne, i kunsten. det er derfor langt å foretrekke å bruke ordene åndelighet eller sjel istedenfor kristendom.
Når det kommer til åndelighet ble et skille opprettet mellom sjel og mekanikk eller mellom åndelighet og rasjonalitet da menn som Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, Rene Descartes, Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle og Isaac Newton fikk ideen om å organisere vitenskapen på 1600 tallet, noe som resulterte i et skille mellom vitenskap og religion.
De var for øvrig alle erklært kristne, men de fikk det for seg at universet var en maskin, sinnrikt designet og satt i gang av Gud. Alt var styrt av evige matematiske lover, som i sin tur fantes som ideer i Guds bevissthet. Denne mekanistiske filosofien var revolusjonær nettopp fordi den forkastet det animistiske synet på naturen som ble tatt for gitt i middelalderen.
Frem til det syttende århundre lærte man på universiteter og av kristne teologer at universet var levende, gjennomtrengt av Guds ånd og en guddommelig livskraft. Alle planter, dyr og mennesker hadde sjel. Stjernene, planetene og jorden var levende vesener styrt av subtil intelligens.
Mekanistisk vitenskap forkastet disse doktrinene og kastet alle sjeler ut av naturen. Etter noen hundre år har vi blitt et rent mekanistisk og rasjonelt samfunn, også kalt et sekulært samfunn.
Men åndelighet er en helt og holdent naturlig og menneskelig egenskap, ikke noe intellektuelt for intellektuelle – ikke noe særegent for kunstnere og prester, noe de har mer av enn andre. Det handler ganske enkelt om tilstedeværelse, ro og refleksjon (meditasjon) og en grunnleggende erkjennelse av at vi ikke vet – av det uendelige, det gir den nødvendige ydmykheten. Åndelighet hører med andre ord hjemme overalt.
Alt sammen er ekte menneskelig, naturlige egenskaper med tilhørende enkle teknikker som snarest bør innføres som en naturlig bestanddel i hverdagen, i skole og hjem – hvis man da er av den oppfatning at vi har fått et rent sekulært og nyliberalistiske samfunn der den materialistiske tankegangen ansees for å være internalisert i oss alle, og som resulterer i et evig fokus på økonomisk vekst og forbrukerhysteri.
Mener vi det, bør vi altså snarest komme oss bort fra skolens mekanistiske testregime.
En sivilisasjon trenger et høyere mål og vedtatte normer for å utvikle seg. Kristendommen har dette, men stat og lov har overtatt. Spørsmålet blir om ikke religionen, samt vår pakt med Gud, inkluderte noe grunnleggende som vi mangler i dag.
Kristendommen handler om vår sivilisasjon og kultur, om hvem vi er og hvor vi er på vei. Rett og slett en samling tekster samlet og kopiert opp gjennom tidene. Bibelen består av et utvalg av disse tekstene.
Men Kristendommen handler også om hva vi bør gjøre og ikke gjøre, et sett med normer til etterfølgelse, ganske på lik linje med sumerernes mesh (som var en av gudenes forordninger som gjorde sosiale institusjoner, religiøse praksiser, teknologier, adferd, normer og sivilisasjon mulig, og var grunnleggende i forståelsen av forholdet mellom menneskeheten og gudene), egypternes maat (som vil si egypternes konsept av sannhet, balanse, orden, lov, moral og rettferdighet) og kinesernes tao (som betyr vei – den gyldne middelvei).
Og nestekjærlighet, som vi hører så mye om, må vell sies å stå høyt i hevd i kristendommen. Spørsmålet er om dagens kristne følger de normer som kommer frem gjennom kristendommen. Hvis de ikke gjør det, så hvorfor kalle dem kristne? Kanskje ateistene tross alt er de mest kristne av oss. Men så godtar de ikke trosbekjennelsen.
Paven har nå tatt en del av kristendommens budskap ut av skapet, og i mer eller mindre krasse ordlag går han løs på dem som har forårsaket den kapitalistiske krisen og som dermed har skjøvet flere millioner katolikker ut i arbeidsløshet. Det er jo primært de katolske landene som har blitt truffet av krisen her i Europa.
Det å anklage kristendommen for noe som har blitt gjort av folk som kaller seg for kristne, men som ikke følger Guds fordninger, blir feil, noe det også blir hvis man kritiserer kristendommen ut fra hva den såkalte kristne verden (alias Vesten) fortar seg i dag. Dette på grunn av at vi har skilt stat og kirke, noe som har gjort kirken til et tempel hvor man kan hylle Gud, men som ikke har med hverdagen og politikken å gjøre. Man har med andre ord satt kristendommen ut av bane.
Vi er ikke bundet av kristendommen i våre handlinger, hverken på godt eller vondt. Vi har brudt kontrakten med Gud og gjør som vi selv vil. Og slik har det vært siden reformasjonen, og før den tid var det den tids problemer, for det pågikk jo en kamp mellom keiser og pave, og det er et stort spørsmål om folk heller ikke på den tiden var flinke til å holde pakten med Gud.
Så da har vi gått fra et teosofisk til et sekulært samfunn, fra kristendom til ateisme. Kristendommen har blitt et ytre skall vi enten smigrer oss med eller kritiserer, men som ingen av oss handler ut i fra. Og en av grunnene til dette var vell det at ikke heller de kristne, eller kristendommens ledere, fulgte normene, noe som førte til at stadig flere av oss protesterte og mente det hele var hykleri og dobbeltmoralistisk.
Kristendommen mistet sin rolle og mange av oss begynte å følge vitenskapen, og da især den materealistiske slik den ble nedfelt av Newton, Descartes og Bacon, som hverken respekterte Gud eller den verden vi lever i. Vår krig mot naturen tok til. Dette ikke minst på grunn av man ikke anså at vitenskapen utgjorde noen moralsk kodeks, et moralsk imperativ eller noen normer til etterfølgelse, men kun gikk ut på å veie og måle.
Normene blir i dag nedfelt i lovbøker og uformelle regler. Staten har siden Freden i Westfalen, en fredsavtale som ble proklamert 25. oktober 1648 fra rådhusene i de to forhandlingsbyene Osnabrück og Münster i Westfalen, etter ca. åtte års forhandlinger om avslutningen av tredveårskrigen, hatt monopol på vold og er den myndigheten som påser at lovene følges. Guds straff er det vell få som frykter.
Men staten og kapitalen står i ledtog med hverandre. Begge handler ut fra kortsiktige profitthensyn og særinteresser. Vi har forsøkt oss med et globalt overordnet organ, FN, men uten å lykkes særlig godt da blant annet USA har gjort alt i sin makt for å få FN til å føye seg etter egen pipe.
Vi har med andre ord erstattet Gud (en overordnet autoritet – lik for alle) og kristendommens normer til etterfølgelse med en nasjonalstat, som befinner seg i verdenselitens golde klør, og et sett lover. Kanskje trenger vi å reflektere over de to ulike systemene og ta dem under nærmere betraktning.
En gud kan være så mangt – gudene i de ulike kulturene, iaf i Eurasia, har samme utgangspunkt og er stort sett de samme gudene, men med ulike navn. Tordenguden ble sett på som den mektigste, gudenes konge. Han representerer naturkrefter som lyn og torden, og kan ha representert en by eller folkegruppe. Han har flere kjennetegn og symboler. Det er mange mytologier.
En Gud, med stor g, vil si den nordiske Odin, den sumeriske An osv. En kraft bak alt som er og som har vært. Mens de ulike gudene er ulike egenskaper ved mennesker og natur så er Guden den som omfavner alt, og kan nesten like gjerne skiftes ut med universet eller naturen.
Faktisk er det veldig lite forskjell mellom å ha en Gud og ikke noen gud, burde iaf være det ettersom religion, mytologi, filosofi og vitenskap kun er ulike måter å beskrive de samme fenomenene på.
Selv om vitenskapen i seg selv ikke lager noen normer så er det helt klart at vi bør ta hensyn til for eksempel bærekraft når det kommer til hvordan vi bør leve. Og kanskje var kristendommens normer og vår pakt med Gud nettopp skapt for at vi bedre skulle kunne leve i pakt med hverandre og med naturen. Dypøkologien handler vell dypest sett om dette.
Vi bør ha en overordnet autoritet og normer til etterfølgelse, samt en “nasjonalstat” med nedfelte lover og regler. Vi har jo sett gjennom statestikk at mennesker er lykkeligst når ressusene i samfunnet er fordelt mellom borgerne, så det virker jo logisk med jevn fordeling av godene.
Alt viser at menneskene er født til å være fri, så en eller annen form for direkte demokrati høres bra ut. Reklame der i mot, som kun får oss til å kjøpe ting vi ikke har bruk for, kan fint erstattes med folkeopplysning.
The word mermaid is a compound of the Old English mere (sea), and maid (a girl or young woman). The equivalent term in Old English was merewif. They are conventionally depicted as beautiful with long flowing hair.
They are sometimes equated with the sirens of Greek mythology (especially the Odyssey), half-bird femme fatales whose enchanting voices would lure soon-to-be-shipwrecked sailors to nearby rocks, sandbars or shoals, as well as with sirenia, a biological order comprising dugongs and manatees.Some of the historical sightings by sailors may have been misunderstood encounters with these aquatic mammals.
A mermaid is a legendary aquatic creature with the upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish. Mermaids are sometimes associated with perilous events such as floods, storms, shipwrecks and drownings. In other folk traditions (or sometimes within the same tradition), they can be benevolent or beneficent, bestowing boons or falling in love with humans.
Christopher Columbus reported seeing mermaids while exploring the Caribbean, and sightings have been reported in the 20th and 21st centuries in Canada, Israel and Zimbabwe. The U.S. National Ocean Service stated in 2012 that no evidence of mermaids has ever been found.
Mermaids have been a popular subject of art and literature in recent centuries, such as in Hans Christian Andersen’s well-known fairy tale “The Little Mermaid” (1836). They have subsequently been depicted in operas, paintings, books, films and comics.
Mermaids appear in the folklore of many cultures worldwide, including the Near East, Europe, Africa and Asia. The first stories appeared in ancient Assyria, in which the goddess Atargatis transformed herself into a mermaid out of shame for accidentally killing her human lover.
The first known mermaid stories appeared in Assyria 1000 BC. The goddess Atargatis, mother of Assyrian queen Semiramis, the legendary queen of king Ninus, succeeding him to the throne of Assyria, loved a mortal (a shepherd) and unintentionally killed him.
Ashamed, she jumped into a lake and took the form of a fish, but the waters would not conceal her divine beauty. Thereafter, she took the form of a mermaid – human above the waist, fish below – although the earliest representations of Atargatis showed her as a fish with a human head and arm, similar to the Sumerian god Enki, later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology.
The legends narrated by Diodorus Siculus, Justin and others from Ctesias of Cnidus describe her and her relationship to King Ninus, himself a mythical king of Assyria, not attested in the Assyrian King List.
Ara the Beautiful (also Ara the Handsome or Ara the Fair) is a legendary Armenian hero. He is notable in Armenian literature for the popular legend in which he was so handsome that the Assyrian queen Semiramis waged war against Armenia just to get him.
He is sometimes associated with the the first known historical king of Urartu known as Arame (ruled 858–844 BC), who ruled in the 9th century BC.
Living at the time of King Shalmaneser III of Assyria (ruled 859–824 BC), Arame united the Nairi tribe against the threat of the Assyrian Empire. His capital at Arzashkun was captured by Shalmaneser.
Arame has been suggested as the prototype of both Aram (and, correspondingly the popular given name Aram) and Ara the Beautiful, two of the legendary forefathers of the Armenian people.
Ninus, according to Greek historians writing in the Hellenistic period and later, was accepted as the eponymous founder of Nineveh (also called “city of Ninus”), ancient capital of Assyria.
Nineveh was an ancient Assyrian city on the eastern bank of the Tigris River, and capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The origin of the name Nineveh is obscure. The ideogram means “house or place of fish,” and was perhaps due to popular etymology (compare Aramaic “nuna,” denoting “fish”).
Possibly it meant originally the seat of the East Semitic Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian goddess of fertility, love, war, and sexuality, Ishtar, since Nina was one of the Babylonian names of that goddess.
Inanna was associated with the eastern fish of the last of the zodiacal constellations, Pisces. Her consort Dumuzi was associated with the contiguous first constellation, Aries. Pisces is associated with Aphrodite and Eros.
Ishtar, the counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna, and the cognate for the Northwest Semitic Aramean goddess Astarte, was the daughter of Ninurta. She was particularly worshipped in northern Mesopotamia, at the Assyrian cities of Nineveh, Ashur and Arbela (Erbil). Besides the lions on her gate, her symbol is an eight-pointed star. In the Babylonian pantheon, she “was the divine personification of the planet Venus”.
Ancient Nineveh’s mound-ruins of Kouyunjik and Nabī Yūnus are located on a level part of the plain near the junction of the Tigris and the Khosr Rivers within an area of 750 hectares (1,900 acres) circumscribed by a 12-kilometre (7.5 mi) brick rampart. This whole extensive space is now one immense area of ruins overlaid in parts by new suburbs across the river from the modern-day major city of Mosul in the Ninawa Governorate of Iraq.
Nineveh was an important junction for commercial routes crossing the Tigris until, after a bitter period of civil war in Assyria itself, it was sacked by an unusual coalition of former subject peoples, the Babylonians, Medes, Persians, Chaldeans, Scythians and Cimmerians in 612 BC.
Occupying a central position on the great highway between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean, thus uniting the East and the West, it received wealth from many sources, so that it became one of the greatest of all the region’s ancient cities, and the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
Nineveh was one of the oldest and greatest cities in antiquity. The area was settled as early as 6000 BC and, by 3000 BC, had become an important religious center for worship of the Assyrian goddess Ishtar.
The early city (and subsequent buildings) were constructed on a fault line and, consequently, suffered damage from a number of earthquakes. One such event destroyed the first temple of Ishtar, which was then rebuilt in 2260 BC by the Akkadian king Manishtusu.
Texts from the Hellenistic period and later offered an eponymous Ninus as the founder of Nineveh, although there is no historical basis for this. The historic Nineveh is mentioned during the reign of Shamshi-Adad I in about 1800 BC as a centre of worship of Ishtar, whose cult was responsible for the city’s early importance.
The goddess’s statue was sent to Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt in the 14th century BC, by orders of the king of Mitanni. The Assyrian city of Nineveh became one of Mitanni’s vassals for half a century until the early 14th century BC, when the Assyrian king Ashur-uballit I reclaimed it in 1365 BC while overthrowing the Mitanni Empire and creating the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC).
Ninus is not attested on the Assyrian King List or in any cuneiform literature; he does not seem to represent any one personage known to modern history, and is more likely a conflation of several real and/or fictional figures of antiquity, as seen to the Greeks through the mists of time.
Many early accomplishments are attributed to him, such as training the first hunting dogs, and taming horses for riding. For this accomplishment, he is sometimes represented in Greek mythology as a centaur.
The figures of King Ninus and Queen Semiramis first appear in the history of Persia written by Ctesias of Cnidus (c. 400 BC), who claimed, as court physician to Artaxerxes II, to have access to the royal historical records.
Ctesias’ account was later expanded on by Diodorus Siculus. Ninus continued to be mentioned by European historians (e.g. Alfred the Great), even up until knowledge of cuneiform enabled a more precise reconstruction of Assyrian and Babylonian history from the mid 19th century onwards.
The decipherment of a vast quantity of Cuneiform texts has allowed modern Assyriologists to piece together a more accurate history of Sumer, Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia and Chaldea.
Ninus is not attested in any of the extensive king lists compiled by the Mesopotamians themselves, nor mentioned in any Mesopotamian literature, and it is highly likely that this Hellenic creation was inspired by the deeds of one or more real kings of Assyria, or Assyro-Babylonian mythology.
Similarly, the Biblical character of Nimrod is not attested anywhere in Assyrian, Babylonian, Akkadian or Sumerian literature or king lists, but is believed by many scholars to have been inspired by one or more real kings, the most likely being Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria who ruled the Middle Assyrian Empire during the 13th century BC, or the Assyrian war god Ninurta.
An Assyrian queen Shammuramat is known to be historical, and for five years from 810 BC ruled the Neo-Assyrian Empire as regent for her son Adad-nirari III, and had been the wife of Shamshi-Adad V.
The later Hellenic myths surrounding Semiramis are considered by some to be inspired by the novelty of a woman ruling such an empire. Another opinion holds that Shamurammat could have been a namesake of an earlier Semiramis, and not necessarily the inspiration for her.
The name of Semiramis came to be applied to various monuments in Western Asia and Asia Minor, the origin of which was forgotten or unknown. Nearly every stupendous work of antiquity by the Euphrates or in Iran seems to have ultimately been ascribed to her, even the Behistun Inscription of Darius.
Herodotus ascribes to her the artificial banks that confined the Euphrates and knows her name as borne by a gate of Babylon. However, Diodorus stresses that the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were built long after Semiramis had reigned and not in her time.
Various places in Assyria and throughout Mesopotamia as a whole, Media, Persia, the Levant, Asia Minor, Arabia and the Caucasus bore the name of Semiramis, but slightly changed, even in the Middle Ages, and an old name of the city of Van was Shamiramagerd (in Armenian it means created by Semiramis).
A real and historical Shammuramat (the Akkadian and Aramaic form of the name) was the Assyrian queen of Shamshi-Adad V (ruled 824 BC–811 BC), king of Assyria and ruler of the Neo Assyrian Empire, and its regent for four years until her son Adad-nirari III came of age.
The indigenous Assyrians of Iraq, north east Syria, south east Turkey and north west Iran still name female children Semiramis.
The Greeks recognized Atargatis under the name Derketo. Sometime before 546 BC, Milesian philosopher Anaximander postulated that mankind had sprung from an aquatic animal species. He thought that humans, who begin life with prolonged infancy, could not have survived otherwise.
Enki, the Abagallu and Adapa
(half fish – half man)
Enki was originally patron god of the city of Eridu, but later the influence of his cult spread throughout Mesopotamia and to the Canaanites, Hittites and Hurrians. His symbols included a goat and a fish, which later combined into a single beast, the goat Capricorn, recognised as the Zodiacal constellation Capricornus. He was accompanied by an attendant Isimud. He was also associated with the planet Mercury in the Sumerian astrological system.
Enki, and later Ea, were apparently depicted, sometimes, like Adam, as a man covered with the skin of a fish, and this representation, as likewise the name of his temple E-apsu, “house of the watery deep”, points decidedly to his original character as a god of the waters. Around the excavation of the 18 shrines found on the spot, thousands of carp bones were found, consumed possibly in feasts to the god.
Of his cult at Eridu, which goes back to the oldest period of Mesopotamian history, nothing definite is known except that his temple was also associated with Ninhursag’s temple which was called Esaggila, “the lofty head house” (E, house, sag, head, ila, high; or Akkadian goddess = Ila), a name shared with Marduk’s temple in Babylon, pointing to a staged tower or ziggurat (as with the temple of Enlil at Nippur, which was known as E-kur (kur, hill)), and that incantations, involving ceremonial rites in which water as a sacred element played a prominent part, formed a feature of his worship.
This seems also implicated in the epic of the hieros gamos or sacred marriage of Enki and Ninhursag (above), which seems an etiological myth of the fertilisation of the dry ground by the coming of irrigation water (from Sumerian a, ab, water or semen).
The early inscriptions of Urukagina in fact go so far as to suggest that the divine pair, Enki and Ninki, were the progenators of seven pairs of gods, including Enki as god of Eridu, Enlil of Nippur, and Su’en (or Sin) of Ur, and were themselves the children of An (sky, heaven) and Ki (earth).
The pool of the Abzu at the front of his temple was adopted also at the temple to Nanna (Akkadian Sin) the Moon, at Ur, and spread from there throughout the Middle East. It is believed to remain today as the sacred pool at Mosques, or as the holy water font in Catholic or Eastern Orthodox churches.
Whether Eridu at one time also played an important political role in Sumerian affairs is not certain, though not improbable. At all events the prominence of “Ea” led, as in the case of Nippur, to the survival of Eridu as a sacred city, long after it had ceased to have any significance as a political center. Myths in which Ea figures prominently have been found in Assurbanipal’s library, and in the Hattusas archive in Hittite Anatolia.
As Ea, Enki had a wide influence outside of Sumer, being equated with El (at Ugarit) and possibly Yah (at Ebla) in the Canaanite ‘ilhm pantheon, he is also found in Hurrian and Hittite mythology, as a god of contracts, and is particularly favourable to humankind. Amongst the Western Semites, it is thought that Ea was equated to the term *hyy (life), referring to Enki’s waters as life giving.
Enki/Ea is essentially a god of civilization, wisdom, and culture. He was also the creator and protector of man, and of the world in general. Traces of this view appear in the Marduk epic celebrating the achievements of this god and the close connection between the Ea cult at Eridu and that of Marduk.
The Akkadian Apkallu, “sage”, comes from Sumerian AB.GAL.LU (Ab=water, Gal=Great Lu=Man) are seven Sumerian sages, demigods who are said to have been created by the god Enki (Akkadian: Ea) to establish culture and give civilization to mankind. The word Abgallu, sage, survived into Nabatean times, around the time of Christ, as apkallum, used to describe the profession of a certain kind of priest.
The sages are described in Mesopotamian literature as ‘pure parādu-fish, probably carp, whose bones are found associated with the earliest shrine, and still kept as a holy duty in the precincts of Near Eastern mosques and monasteries. Adapa as a fisherman was iconographically portrayed as a fish-man composite.
Mesopotamian myth tells of seven antediluvian sages, who were sent by Enki, the wise god of Eridu, to bring the arts of civilisation to humankind. The first of these, Adapa, also known as Uan, the name given as Oannes by Berossus, introduced the practice of the correct rites of religious observance as priest of the E’Apsu temple, at Eridu.
The sages served as priests of Enki and as advisors or sages to the earliest “kings” or rulers of Sumer before the flood. They are credited with giving mankind the Me (moral code), the crafts, and the arts. They were seen as fish-like men who emerged from the sweet water Abzu. They are commonly represented as having the lower torso of a fish, or dressed as a fish.
According to the myth, human beings were initially unaware of the benefits of culture and civilization. The god Enki sent from Dilmun, amphibious half-fish, half-human creatures, who emerged from the oceans to live with the early human beings and teach them the arts and other aspects of civilization such as writing, law, temple and city building and agriculture. These creatures are known as the Apkallu. The Apkallu remained with human beings after teaching them the ways of civilization, and served as advisers to the kings.
The Apkallus are referred to in several Sumerian myths in cuneiform literature. They are first referred to in the Erra Epic by the character of Marduk who asks “Where are the Seven Sages of the Apsu, the pure puradu fish, who just as their lord Ea, have been endowed with sublime wisdom?”
According to the Temple Hymn of Ku’ara, all seven sages are said to have originally belonged to the city of Eridu. However, the names and order of appearance of these seven sages are varied in different sources. They are also referred to in the incantation series Bit Meseri’s third tablet.
In non-cuneiform sources, they find references in the writings of Berossus, the 3rd century BC, Babylonian priest of Bel Marduk. Berossus describes the appearance from the Persian Gulf of the first of these sages Oannes and describes him as a monster with two heads, the body of a fish and human feet. He then relates that more of these monsters followed. The seven sages are also referred to in an exorcistic text where they are described as bearing the likeness of carps.
Though the order of the appearance of the sages is not precisely agreed upon, Conrad and Newing give an order of their appearance: The first is Uanna, “who finished the plans for heaven and earth”, the second is Uannedugga “who was endowed with comprehensive intelligence”, the third came Enmedugga “who was allotted a good fate”, the fourth was Enmegalamma “who was born in a house”, the fifth was Enmebulugga “who grew up on pasture land”, the sixth is An-Enlilda “the conjurer of the city of Eridu”, and last came Utuabzu “who ascended to heaven.”
Conrad and Newing identify Utuabzu as the legendary Babylonian mythical figure, Adapa, while others identify Uanna with Adapa.
These seven were each advisers for seven different kings and therefore result in two different lists, one of kings and one of Apkallu. Neither the sages nor the kings in these lists were genealogically related however.
Apkallu and human beings were presumably capable of conjugal relationships since after the flood, the myth states that four Apkallu appeared. These were part human and part Apkallu, and included Nungalpirriggaldim, Pirriggalnungal, Pirriggalabsu, and Lu-nana who was only two-thirds Apkallu.
These Apkallus are said to have committed various transgressions which angered the gods. These seeming negative deeds of the later Apkallu and their roles as wise councillors has led some scholars to equate them with the Nephilim of Genesis 6:4.
After these four post-diluvian Apkallus came the first completely human advisers, who were called ummanu. Gilgamesh, the mythical king of Uruk, is said to be the first king to have had an entirely human adviser. In recent times, scholars have also suggested the Apkallu are the model for Enoch, the ancestor of Noah.
Apkallu reliefs also appear in Assyrian palaces as guardians against evil spirits. They are one of the more prominent supernatural creatures that appear in the art of Ashurnasirpal II of the 9th century BC. They appear in one of three forms, bird-headed, human-headed or dressed in fish-skin cloaks.
Adapa, the first of the Mesopotamian seven sages and the first sage’s association with water, was a mortal man from a godly lineage, a son of Enki, the Sumerian god of wisdom and of the ancient city of Eridu, who brought the arts of civilization to that city.
Adapa was a mythical figure who unknowingly refused the gift of immortality. The story is first attested in the Kassite period (14th century BCE), in fragmentary tablets from Tell el-Amarna, and from Assur, of the late second millennium BCE.
He broke the wings of Ninlil the South Wind, who had overturned his fishing boat, and was called to account before Anu. Enki, his patron god, warned him to apologize humbly for his actions, but not to partake of food or drink while he was in heaven, as it would be the food of death. Anu, impressed by Adapa’s sincerity, offered instead the food of immortality, but Adapa heeded Ea’s advice, refused, and thus missed the chance for immortality that would have been his.
Vague parallels can be drawn to the story of Genesis, where Adam and Eve are expelled from the Garden of Eden by Yahweh, after they ate from the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thus gaining death.
Parallels are also apparent (to an even greater degree) with the story of Persephone visiting Hades, who was warned to take nothing from that kingdom. Stephanie Galley writes “From Erra and Ishum we know that all the sages were banished … because they angered the gods, and went back to the Apsu, where Ea lived, and … the story … ended with Adapa’s banishment” p. 182.
Adapa is often identified as advisor to the mythical first (antediluvian) king of Eridu, Alulim. In addition to his advisory duties, he served as a priest and exorcist, and upon his death took his place among the Seven Sages or Apkallū.
Oannes (Hovhannes in Armenian) was the name given by the Babylonian writer Berossus in the 3rd century BCE to a mythical being who taught mankind wisdom.
Berossus describes Oannes as having the body of a fish but underneath the figure of a man. He is described as dwelling in the Persian Gulf, and rising out of the waters in the daytime and furnishing mankind instruction in writing, the arts and the various sciences.
The name “Oannes” was once conjectured to be derived from that of the ancient Babylonian god Ea, but it is now known that the name is the Greek form of the Babylonian Uanna (or Uan) a name used for Adapa in texts from the Library of Ashurbanipal.
The Lepenski Vir culture was a fascinating prehistoric culture in Europe. They lived a pretty sedentary lifestyle compared to their contemporaries. The group seems to have migrated from present day Czech Republic and settled along the banks of the Danube in today’s Serbia. They became a river people. They built their houses by the river. They fished the river. And they began to worship the river.
The Lepenski Vir culture was advanced for its time. They planned their villages in an organized way. Their houses were built using advanced techniques. Once they had their houses built and their fish done fished they turned to religion. They created a fairly complex religion. The evidence comes from a lavish grave site outside of the village, ceremonial burials of what appear to be elders in the fireplaces of some homes, and the sculptures. The sculptures are crosses between humans and fish.
The earliest sculptures found on the site date to the time of Lepenski Vir Ib settlement. They are present in all the following layers until the end of the distinct Lepenski vir culture. All the sculptures were carved from round sandstone cobbles found on the river banks.
The sculptures can be separated in two distinct categories, one with simple geometric patterns and the other representing humanoid figures. The latter are the most interesting. All of these figural sculptures were modeled in a naturalistic and strongly expressionistic manner. Only the head and face of the human figures were modeled realistically, with strong brow arches, an elongated nose, and a wide, fish-like mouth.
Hair, beard, arms and hands can be seen on some of the figures in a stylized form. Many fish-like features can be noticed. Along with the position which these sculptures had in the house shrine, they suggest a connection with river gods.
Det politikere og flertallet i beste fall gjør i dag er å forsvare arbeiderne og de fattige. Dette har blitt gjort like siden vi skapte hierarki og klassesamfunn. Uten dette ville det rene barbari råde og folk ville ha vært rettsløse.
Kun rike snobber og nyttige idioter arbeider for et samfunn der en liten elite tar for seg av godene på bekostning av resten av samfunnet. Monopolkapitalismen, slik vi har den i dag, er særlig skadelig.
Staten bailer ut banker og finansorganisasjoner, som er skyld i den økonomiske krisen vi nå befinner oss i, men ikke folk, som har mistet sine arbeidsplasser og sparepenger.
Staten og kapitalen styres av de samme interessene. Først i rekken er profitt. Men vi har skapt oss en vill forbrukerkultur hvor vi konsumerer på bekostning av naturen og på bekostning av neste generasjon.
Dette løpet vil bli vår død. Vi blir derfor nødt til å endre hele samfunnet, inkludert økonomien. Vi må skape harmoni mellom hverandre og i vårt samspill med naturen. Dette er ikke kun en viljessak, men en nødvendighet.
I tillegg kommer selvsagt det at alt viser at et samfunn med minst mulig forskjeller mellom folk, rent økonomisk, skaper langt mer glede og langt mindre kriminalitet enn et forskjellssamfunn. Forskjellene må med andre ord baseres på andre ting enn inntekt.
Det at vi i dag i det hele tatt har et så vellfungerende samfunn som det vi har, med unntak av en vekstøkonomi som er ved å ta knekken på planeten, skyldes ikke at de rike får gjøre som de vil, men på grunn av at samfunnsborgerne gjør så godt de kan.
Men denne altruismen, som de rike skummer fløten av, vil bli vår sanne død hvis vi ikke reflekterer og handler. Pengene kan ikke stå i høysetet. Vi må ha andre verdier.
Dette er ingen ny, revolusjonær tanke, men er like gammel som vår sivilisasjon. Vi kan ikke basere vårt samfunn ensidig på materiell vellferd representert ved oksen, Wall Street osv, men på pakten vi har med Gud, eller planten. Mitra betyr nettopp dette – en pakt.
Og følger vi ikke Guds, eller naturens, forordninger, så er det pent lite vi kan stille opp med. Vi trenger Gud (planeten) og ikke omvendt. Det er ikke Gud (planeten) som skal tilbe oss.
Vi er dermed i et skjebnesvangert øyeblikk i vår historie. Hvis vi ikke føyer oss vil vi falle – og er det virkelig dette vi ønsker for våre barn?